The bare landscape, the few trees and the feeling of being at mercy of the winds is what you will take with you leaving Folegandros.

These difficult conditions give a possible interpretation to the countless terraces (or "louria" in the local dialect) dominating the landscape and  found in the most incredible of places. The Folegandrites used to build terraces that often reached the sea to save the soil from erosion of rain. They built a small characteristic stone house, the "dentrospito", to protect the necessary lemon tree from the strong winds .

The first evidence of human presence dates from the Early Cycladic II period (3rd millennium BC) in the settlement of Kastelos. A part of a wall of the 4th century BC is preserved in the cemetery of Chora. In Chrysospilia, the walls and ceiling of the chambers are full of carved names and words dating from the 4th century BC. century.

During the Roman Empire, Folegandros was used as a place of exile, like many barren islands in the Cyclades. In Paleokastro, the island's citadel during historical times, there are few traces of habitation from classical to modern times. During the Venetian occupation Folegandros was part of the duchy of Naxos, ruled by the Gozadins. Since 1617 Folegandros was under Ottoman occupation but deserted several times during the Turkish occupation, mainly due to pirate raids. In 1828 Folegandros joined the newly-formed Greek state. From the beginning of the 20th century until the dictatorship, it was used again - from time to time - as a place of exile for political prisoners.

In recent years, Folegandros, with the rise of tourism, has been developing while maintaining its identity. One element of its identity is the customs of Folegandros with strong social character, such as the celebration of Pascha, like a procession of the image of the Virgin Mary from Chora to the port, following the path, under the light of candles. The procession lasts three days to pass through all the houses and boats of the island.