Orientation is the determination of a position or direction with respect to points on the horizon.

Most of us, addicted to GPS in the urban environment, are unaware of other techniques that may be life-saving in a foreign environment such as the mountains. When GPS and mobile for various reasons will have "abandoned" us we should be able to orient ourselves and find our way!

The equipment alone does not help if we are not properly trained to use it!

Despite the ease of access to GPS, for climbers and hikers, it is essential that they are properly oriented. The most common and accurate way is by using a map and a compass.

Chapters in this seminar:


• Scale

• Equivalence

• Equal height

• Map orientation

• Determining our position on the map


• Magnetic needle

• Windmill

• Targeting

Costas Mougolias, born in 1981, has been actively involved in mountaineering and climbing since 2002, with activities in the mountains of Greece and abroad. He is an Instructor of the Hellenic Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (EOOA), a graduate of the Mountain Escorts School. Since 2017 he is a partner of Anavasi / Ascent (Map Publications) for which he undertakes field mapping and hiking routes of various difficulty.